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Macintosh The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.

Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. However, the introduction of Windows 3. After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mids, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa , the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline.

Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs ' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid down to four in mid The Power Macintosh G3 , iMac , All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability.

Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in , the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops.

Its Xserve server was discontinued in in favor of the Mac Mac Pro. Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from to Since Apple's transition to Intel processors , there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes".

The Macintosh project began in when Jef Raskin , an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory , Inc. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name.

The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the bit Motorola in , which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by , at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project.

At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in , Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. IBM was sent to Digital Research , a meeting was set up. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products.

Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. IBM responded by offering an agreement: One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel.

This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking , shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables. Gordon Letwin wrote in that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". They split development of their DOS systems as a result. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement.

Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. It is the name of the Corel graphics suite, which includes the bitmap-image editor Corel Photo-Paint as well as other graphics-related programs; the latest version is marketed as CorelDraw Graphics Suite , was released in 12 March, CorelDraw is designed to edit two-dimensional images such as posters.

In , Corel engineers Michel Bouillon and Pat Beirne undertook to develop a vector-based illustration program to bundle with their desktop publishing systems; that program, CorelDraw, was released in CorelDraw 1. CorelDraw 3. The inclusion of TrueType in Windows 3. The latest version, , was released on March 12, With version 10, support for VBA was introduced for scripting by. In its first versions, the CDR file format was a proprietary file format used for vector graphic drawings, recognizable by the first two bytes of the file being "WL".

Beginning with CorelDraw 4 it included the version number of the writing program in hexadecimal. There is no publicly available CDR file format specification. In December the sK1 open-source project team started to reverse-engineer the CDR format; the results and the first working snapshot of the CDR importer were presented at the Libre Graphics Meeting conference taking place in May in Montreal.

On the team parsed the structure of other Corel formats with the help of the open source CDR Explorer. As of , the sK1 project claims to have the best import support for CorelDraw file formats among open source software programs. The sK1 project developed the UniConvertor , a command line open source tool which supports conversion from CorelDraw ver. UniConvertor is used in the Inkscape and Scribus open source projects as an external tool for importing CorelDraw files.

Microsoft apologized for inaccurately blaming the CDR file format and other formats for security problems in Microsoft Office and released some tools for solving this problem. The library provides a built-in converter to SVG, a converter to OpenDocument is provided by writerperfect package. The libcdr library is used in LibreOffice starting from version 3. CDR file format import is or supported in following applications: Drawing file versions 3.

Although Seymour I. Rubinstein was the principal owner of the company, Rob Barnaby was the sole author of the early versions of the program. Starting with WordStar 4.

WordStar was deliberately written to make as few assumptions about the underlying system as possible, allowing it to be ported across the many platforms that proliferated in the early s; as all of these versions had similar commands and controls, users could move between platforms with equal ease.

Popular, its inclusion with the Osborne 1 computer made the program become the de facto standard for much of the word-processing market; as the computer market became dominated by the IBM PC , this same portable design made it difficult for the program to add new features and affected its performance.

In spite of its great popularity in the early s, these problems allowed WordPerfect to take WordStar's place as the most used word processor from onwards.

Seymour I. After leaving IMSAI, Rubinstein planned to start his own software company that would sell through the new network of retail computer stores, he founded MicroPro International Corporation in September and hired John Robbins Barnaby as programmer, who wrote a word processor, WordMaster, a sorting program, SuperSort, in Intel assembly language. MicroPro began selling the product, now renamed WordStar, in June By May BYTE magazine called WordStar "without a doubt the best-known and the most used personal computer word-processing program"; the company released WordStar 3.

A manual that PC Magazine described as "incredibly inadequate" led many authors to publish replacements. WordStar 3. WordStar's ability to use a "non-document" mode to create text files without formatting made it popular among programmers for writing code. COM file. WordStar would still access the "disk" but the far faster access of the RAM drive compared to a floppy disk yielded a substantial speed improvement.

However, edited versions of a document were "saved" only to this RAM disk, had to be copied to physical media before rebooting. InfoWorld described WordStar as "notorious for its complexity", but by it was the leading word processing system. Although competition appeared early, WordStar was the dominant word processor on x86 machines until , it was part of the software bundle.

Since the machine was based on open architecture, within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, software proliferated. Other large technology companies such as Hewlett-Packard , Texas Instruments , Data General had entered it, some large IBM customers were buying Apples, so the company saw introducing its own personal computer as both an experiment in a new market and a defense against rivals and small.

Xerox produced the to introduce a personal computer before IBM, becoming the second Fortune company after Tandy to do so, had its Xerox PARC laboratory's sophisticated technology. Whether IBM had waited too long to enter an industry in which Tandy and others were successful was unclear.

An observer stated that "IBM bringing out a personal computer would be like teaching an elephant to tap dance. Another observer claimed that IBM made decisions so that, when tested, "what they found is that it would take at least nine months to ship an empty box"; as with other large computer companies, its new products required about four to five years for development.

IBM had to learn how to develop, mass-produce , market new computers. Many in the microcomputer industry resented IBM's power and wealth, disliked the perception that an industry founded by startups needed a latecomer so staid that it had a strict dress code and employee songbook; the potential importance to microcomputers of a company so prestigious, that a popular saying in American companies stated "No one got fired for buying IBM", was nonetheless clear.

InfoWorld , which described itself as "The Newsweekly for Microcomputer Users", stated that "for my grandmother, for millions of people like her, IBM and computer are synonymous". Rumors abound about personal computers to come from giants such as Digital Equipment Corporation and the General Electric Company.

But there is no contest. IBM's new personal computer When the number eight company in the Fortune enters the field, news The influence of a personal computer made by a company whose name has come to mean "computer" to most of the world is hard to contemplate; the editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: In — a team led by Dr.

Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, , as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces.

Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh.

On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in , Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android , because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October , the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console.

Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of , the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT:

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