Formative Assessments

North Africans moved to Britain during Roman rule. Emigration from Africa and Immigration to Europe Since the s, the main source countries of migration from Africa to Europe have been Morocco , Algeria and Tunisia , resulting in large diasporas with origins in these countries by the end of the 20th century.

In the period following the oil crisis , immigration controls in European states were tightened. The effect of this was not to reduce migration from North Africa but rather to encourage permanent settlement of previously temporary migrants and associated family migration.

From the second half of the s, the destination countries for migrants from the Maghreb broadened to include Spain and Italy , as a result of increased demand for low-skilled labour in those countries.

Since , the source countries of this illegal migration have grown to include sub-Saharan African states. He criticises this portrayal, arguing that the illegal migrants are often well educated and able to afford the considerable cost of the journey to Europe.

Migration from Africa to Europe, he argues, "is fuelled by a structural demand for cheap migrant labour in informal sectors. Furthermore, he argues that whereas the media and popular perceptions see irregular migrants as mostly arriving by sea, most actually arrive on tourist visas or with false documentation, or enter via the Spanish enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla. He states that "the majority of irregular African migrants enter Europe legally and subsequently overstay their visas.

Many people from underdeveloped African countries embark on the dangerous journey for Europe, in hopes of a better life. In parts of Africa, particularly North Africa Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya , trafficking immigrants to Europe has become more lucrative than drug trafficking.

Illegal immigration to Europe usually occurs by boat via the Mediterranean Sea , or in some cases by land at the Spanish Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and has made international headlines. Many migrants risk serious injury or death during their journey to Europe and most of those whose claim for asylum were unsuccessful are deported back to Africa. The Italian government ceased the operation as it was judged to be unsustainable, involving a large proportion of the Italian navy.

The operation was replaced by a more limited joint EU border protection operation, named Operation Triton managed by the EU border agency, Frontex. Some other European governments, including Britain's, argued that the operations such as Mare Nostrum and Triton serve to provide an "unintended pull factor" encouraging further migration.

The International Organization for Migration IOM estimates suggest that between the start of and the middle of April, 21, migrants had reached the Italian coast and migrants had died in the Mediterranean. Some countries, such as Spain and Malta, have called for other EU member states to share the responsibility of dealing with migration flows from Africa. Spain has also created legal migration routes for African migrants, recruiting workers from countries including Senegal.

While adopting a more liberal approach than France, Spain has also, according to a Council on Foreign Relations report, "attempted to forge broad bilateral accords with African countries that would exchange repatriation for funding to help the returned migrants. He is also skeptical that the EU's programmes that are designed to promote economic development in West Africa will result in reduced migration. He argues that "it has become the conventional wisdom to argue that promoting economic development in the Global South has the potential to reduce migration to the North.

This carries the clear implication that such migration is a bad thing, and poor people should stay put.

Related Links: Compare Prices Alias Concept 2018 And Older Versions | Adobe Audition CC

Tagged:Workstation, SQL Server, Pagemaker

Copyrights ©2019 All rights reserved. Site Map